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functional uses of coal

What is coal used for? - USGS

Coal is primarily used as fuel to generate electric power in the United States. In coal-fired power plants, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, or lignite is burned. The heat produced by the combustion of the coal is used to convert water into high-pressure steam, which drives a turbine, which produces electricity. In 2019, about 23 percent of all electricity in the United

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Non-fuel uses of coal - United States Energy Association

Oct 01, 1998  The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel. Approximately, 6.6 Bt (or 6.6 Gt) of hard coal and 1 Bt(or 1 Gt) of brown coal were used worldwide in 2012. Since 2000, global coal consumption has

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Frequent Questions about the Beneficial Use of Coal Ash ...

Dec 12, 2014  The final beneficial use criteria are as follows: (1) The CCR must provide a functional benefit; (2) The CCR must substitute for the use of a virgin material, conserving natural resources that would otherwise need to be obtained through practices such as extraction; (3) The use of CCRs must meet relevant product specifications, regulatory ...

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EPA Promoted the Use of Coal Ash Products With Incomplete ...

Mar 23, 2011  beneficial uses it had promoted on its Coal Combustion Products Partnership (C. 2. P. 2) program website. Background . CCRs are generated from burning coal. More than 136 million tons of CCRs were generated in 2008. EPA defines beneficial use of CCRs as one that provides a functional benefit, replaces the use of an alternative material,

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Coal Structure and Properties - EOLSS

4.1 Relation between Coal Structure and Properties 4.2 Surface Properties 4.3 Bulk Property 4.4 Thermal Properties Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketch Summary Coals have many structural features such as aromaticity, various oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur functional groups, covalent and noncovalent cross-links, physical associations,

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Coal Uses, Types, Pollution, Facts Britannica

Coal as an energy source. Coal is an abundant natural resource that can be used as a source of energy, as a chemical source from which numerous synthetic compounds (e.g., dyes, oils, waxes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides) can be derived, and in the production of

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Making electronics out of coal MIT News Massachusetts ...

Apr 19, 2016  The simple heating device the team made as a proof of principle provides an end-to-end demonstration of how to use the material, from grinding the coal, to depositing it as a thin film and making it into a functional electronic device. Now, they say, the doors are opened for a wide variety of potential applications through further research.

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Ultrasonic extraction and oxidation characteristics of ...

Apr 15, 2019  Ultrasonic extraction technology was used to study the coal oxidations. • DMAC had the largest extraction rate for free radicals. • The largest extraction rate of hydroxyl was possessed by NMP. • Hydroxyl was the dominant functional group at the initial stage of coal oxidation.

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Relation between functional forms of coal nitrogen and ...

Characterization of the Mineral Constituents of Coal Dust and Cleaved Coal Using the Surface Analytical Techniques X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Laser Ionization Mass Analysis. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 1996, 11 (7) , 782-789.

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Coking coal of the United States—Modern and historical ...

Coking coal, or metallurgical coal, has been produced in the United States for nearly 200 years. Coking coal is primarily used in the production of coke for use in the steel industry, and for other uses (for example, foundries, blacksmithing, heating buildings, and brewing). Currently, U.S. coking coal is produced in Alabama, Arkansas, Pennsylvania, Virginia , and West Virginia.

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Understanding the Chemistry and Physics of Coal Structure ...

but Rawhide coal has twice the level of ether oxygen. A most important.observation from the point of view of reactivity is that nearly one-quarter of the organic mass of Rawhide coal occurs as the 0, C, and H in these oxygen functional groups. Table 2. Oxygen functional group distribution reflects coal rank Functional groups, no./100 C atoms

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Task 5.9 Use of Coal Ash in Recycled Plastics and ...

TASK 5.9 - USE OF COAL ASH IN RECYCLED PLASTICS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1.0 INTRODUCTION The goal of this research project by the Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to determine the potential for coal ash to serve-as a “functional filler” in plastics and other composite materials, with special emphasis on recycled plastics.

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Home World Coal Association

World Coal Association members are committed to shaping a sustainable future for coal, to innovate and deliver the clean energy transition. Our Commitment . The role of coal . Coal plays a vital role in meeting global energy needs and is critical to building growing economies and societies.

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Surface physicochemical properties of semi-anthracitic ...

Jun 28, 2018  Therefore, understanding oxygen functional groups changes in coal structure also infer changes in the physicochemical properties of coal surface. Other phenomena of coal oxidation process that will be addressed in this study are the effects of hydrophobicity and hygroscopic properties on coal surface, contact angle and coal combustion properties.

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Coal gas - Wikipedia

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. It is produced when coal is heated strongly in the absence of air. Town gas is a more general term referring to manufactured gaseous fuels produced for sale to consumers and municipalities.. Coal gas contains a mixture of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane ...

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Effect of Swelling Treatment by Organic Solvent on the ...

Five organic solvents, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), cyclohexanone (CYC), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetonitrile (ACN), and toluene (TOL) were used to treat Shenhua direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) by swelling processes. The treated residues were characterized by swelling degree (Q), SEM, FTIR, TG-DTG, and Py-GC/MS methods. The effect of swelling treatment on the swelling properties ...

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Experimental Study on Temperature Response of Different ...

Oct 19, 2020  Liquid nitrogen freeze–thaw has been used in oil, shale gas and coalbed methane exploitation as an efficient fracturing technology. This paper aimed to study the effect of different coal ranks and liquid nitrogen soaking times on the temperature distribution of coal samples, and to explore the temperature evolution mechanism of different coal ranks during liquid nitrogen soaking.

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Chile looks to repurpose its coal-fired power plants

May 05, 2021  Chile looks to repurpose its coal-fired power plants. By 2040 Chile plans to close all coal-fired power plants. Now, experts are looking at how they can be used in the country’s energy transition. Ventanas coal-fired power plant in Chile's Valparaíso region. Chile plans to close 11 plants nationwide by 2024 (image: Alamy)

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Oxidation of coal. [100 references] (Technical Report ...

Oxidation of coal is affected by incorporation of oxygen functional groups, such as the peroxide, the hydroxyl, the aldehyde, the carbonyl, the carboxyl, the ether linkage, and the methoxyl groups. Once oxygen has been combined with an organic molecule, further oxidation may occur more readily.

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Study on the characteristics of nitrogen dioxide ...

Apr 23, 2021  The Gaussian09 was used to study the adsorption process of NO 2 molecules on coal at the density functional (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G level, and the model of NO 2 adsorption by coal

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The Future of Coal - Climate Strategies

Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal. ... We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. We are only using functional and analytical cookies. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use

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The effect of NaOH pretreatment on coal structure and ...

Apr 15, 2020  Biogenic CBM is an important component of detected CBM, which is formed by coal biodegradation and can be regenerated by anaerobic microorganisms. One of the rate-limiting factors for microbial degradation is the bioavailability of coal molecules, especially for anthracite which is more condense and has higher aromaticity compared with low-rank coal.

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Oxidation of coal. [100 references] (Technical Report ...

Oxidation of coal is affected by incorporation of oxygen functional groups, such as the peroxide, the hydroxyl, the aldehyde, the carbonyl, the carboxyl, the ether linkage, and the methoxyl groups. Once oxygen has been combined with an organic molecule, further oxidation may occur more readily.

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Task 5.9 Use of Coal Ash in Recycled Plastics and ...

TASK 5.9 - USE OF COAL ASH IN RECYCLED PLASTICS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1.0 INTRODUCTION The goal of this research project by the Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to determine the potential for coal ash to serve-as a “functional filler” in plastics and other composite materials, with special emphasis on recycled plastics.

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Understanding the Chemistry and Physics of Coal Structure ...

but Rawhide coal has twice the level of ether oxygen. A most important.observation from the point of view of reactivity is that nearly one-quarter of the organic mass of Rawhide coal occurs as the 0, C, and H in these oxygen functional groups. Table 2. Oxygen functional group distribution reflects coal rank Functional groups, no./100 C atoms

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ASSESSING THE SAFETY CULTURE OF UNDERGROUND

the use of all methodologies combined offers the most comprehensive and complete assessment of a mine’s safety culture. The five methodologies will be explained in detail below. Functional Analysis . The purposes of the functional analysis in this study were: (1) to clearly identify the organizational units of the mines, (2) to gain an

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The Future of Coal - Climate Strategies

Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal. ... We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. We are only using functional and analytical cookies. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use

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Project Descriptions: $56.5M for Clean Coal Technologies ...

This project could show the maximized value of the coal resource stream; demonstrate a reduced capex investment risk for C2CF manufacture and pave the way for significant domestic C2CF manufacturing; and demonstrate end-uses for its derived composite materials. DOE Funding: $1,475,250; Non-DOE Funding: $372,721; Total Value: $1,847,971.

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Coal reveals a sophisticated side: Dirty carbon could be ...

Apr 28, 2020  Coal reveals a sophisticated side: Dirty carbon could be used to make a variety of useful devices. Infrared (heat) image shows a heating device made

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Effects of Oxygen Element and Oxygen-Containing Functional ...

Jul 15, 2015  To investigate the difference of surface oxygen element and oxygen-containing functional groups among coal dusts with different metamorphic degrees and their influence on surface wettability, a series of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on 6 coal samples are carried out. The result demonstrates that the O/C ratio of coal surface shows an overall increasing trend

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International Journal of Coal Geology EndNote

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Structural and functional differentiation of bacterial ...

Feb 04, 2020  Enzyme assays, β-glucosidase, acid- and alkaline- phosphatase and urease, were used to estimate functional activities of soil microbial communities in the

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The evolution law of functional groups during the heating ...

Jan 03, 2021  During the coal spontaneous combustion process, oxidation and pyrolysis work as two coupling reactions: The heat released by the oxidation reaction pyrolyzes the macromolecular structure and coal-oxygen complexes, while a large number of active groups are produced during pyrolysis, which then provides the reactants for the oxidation reaction.

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Indonesia plans to replace old coal power plants with ...

Jan 30, 2020  Indonesia, a major coal exporter, uses coal to power around 60% of its electricity needs but the government is aiming to double the contribution of renewables, which include solar power ...

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Synergistic influence of noncationic surfactants on the ...

FTIR was used to explore the changes in the functional groups of experimental coal samples treated with different concentrations of new dust suppressants. With the FTIR results, a correlation analysis between sedimentation time and functional groups was carried out. In addition, the mechanism of the gas-liquid interface and solid-liquid ...

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Task 5.9 use of coal ash in recycled plastics and ...

Nov 01, 1995  @article{osti_245654, title = {Task 5.9 use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials. Topical report}, author = {Hassett, D J and Dockter, B A and Eylands, K E and Pflughoeft-Hassett, D F}, abstractNote = {The goal of this research project by the Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to determine the potential for coal ash to serve as a {open_quotes}functional ...

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